Anuta is internally governed by its paramount chief and its junior chief. In early June, 2023, the longtime paramount chief Pu Koroatu (Jacob Tearaamanu) passed away. He will be succeeded by Pu Temuriava (Ausiafi Vaika). The current junior chief is Pu Akatunu (Mathania Pautoto). The chiefs are also joined by an advisory council whose members are known as “maru.” The community is represented internationally by Pu Parikitonga (Joseph Toomotu Grim Feinberg).

Anuta is part of the VATUD constituency of the Solomon Islands National Parliament, where it is represented by Hon. Freda Tuki Soriocomua. In the provincial assembly of Temotu Province, Anuta is represented by John Tomotu.

Community members conduct much of their economic and cultural activity in cooperation with other members of their households (patongia) and clans (kainanga). Other community institutions include a community store, a school, and a church belonging to the Anglican Church of Melanesia.

Anutans who do not live on the island participate in many other institutions, including the Anutan Students Association, which supports young Anutans pursuing their studies in various parts of the Solomon Islands and in Fiji.