Anuta is politically represented by its paramount chief, Pu Koroatu (Jacob Tearaamanu) and its junior chief Pu Akatunu (Mathania Pautoto). The chiefs are joined by an advisory council of “maru.” The community is represented internationally by Pu Parikitonga (Joseph Toomotu Grim Feinberg). Anuta also forms a part of the VATUD constituency of the Solomon Islands National Parliament. As of 2015, the VATUD MP is Hon. Freda Tuki Soriocomua.

Community members conduct much of their economic and cultural activity in cooperation with other members of their households (patongia) and clans (kainanga). Other community institutions include a community store, a school, and a church belonging to the Anglican Church of Melanesia.

Anutans who do not live on the island participate in many other institutions, including the Anutan Students Association, which supports young Anutans pursuing their studies in various parts of the Solomon Islands and in Fiji.